Geomagnetic field a.k.a. Earth’s magnetic field is the magnetic field emerging from Earth’s crust and interacting with charged particles of Sun, protecting earthlings from deadly solar and cosmic radiations. Earth’s magnetic flux is generated from electric currents produced from the mixture of nickel and iron present in the outer core of Earth.
The North and South magnetic poles are usually located near the geographic poles. These poles slowly and continuously move over geographic locations but the shifting is so slow for compasses or compass app making them useful for navigation throughout the time. The Earth’s field reverses and North and South magnetic poles switch their places unexpectedly in several hundred thousand years. The most recent geomagnetic pole reversal event occurred around 780,000 years ago and this event is known as Brunhes-Matuyama reversal.
According to the reports by the European Space Agency (ESA), Earth’s magnetic field has weakened by 9% between Africa and South America over the last 200 years. Since the year 1970, South Atlantic Anomaly has weakened by 8% and the weakened patch at South Atlantic is gradually expanding. Earth’s magnetic force or magnetic intensity is measured in units, called nanoteslas and the magnetic intensity is decreased by 2000 nanoteslas between year 1970 to 2020. These studies are conducted by ESA Researchers using swarm constellation of satellites. Also, the North magnetic pole has moved away from Canada towards Russia.
What will be the effect of weakening Earth’s magnetic field?
Year 2020, being a harsh year globally and people trying out their best to come out from this pandemic, a new issue came into the picture. With gradually weakening down of Earth’s magnetic field, it is ending up creating problems for satellites and spacecraft that could make them malfunction at some point. Magnetic field of Earth also protects humans from cosmic and solar radiations, solar dust and even solar winds. Creatures such as birds, turtles and many more uses Earth’s magnetic field to navigate. In the effect, telecommunications and navigation system may be affected. It will not directly affect humans, but the way humans access the technology will be affected.
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